Translated by - OMEGA
Only in the 13th century with the rise of the Sukhothai Kingdom, Thailand builds its identity. Until the mid 20th century, foreigners called the country with the name Siam. The development of today's Thailand over the centuries, passes through several periods:
- SRIVIDZHAYA period (2nd to 13th century) - National Museum of Bangkok you can see some of the artifacts found during the period in question in one of the oldest cities in Thailand named Chaya.
- - The period DVARAVATI (MES) (6th to 13th century) before the migration of Thai people from southern China in the mid-13th century, the people of Mont creates separate city-states with possible capital in Nakhon Pathom, west of Bangkok . Mont missionary tribe were originally from India, sent to spread Buddhism and moving east through the mountain ranges of Myanmar. Hmong from Nakhon Pathom and lower Chao Phraya basin, engulfed Rouge, moved west from his capital in Angkor, Cambodia.
- - Khmer period ( 8th to 13th century ) - In its heyday the Khmer Empire became the dominant power in Southeast Asia, spreading its influence from its magnificent capital of Angkor in Cambodia to the west to the border of Myanmar with Thailand in the north to Laos and south to Nakhon Si Thammarat in Thailand. Khmer built huge temples and cities. Khmer Empire was ruled by a series of gods and kings in the 12th century worship deities and rituals of Brahmanism and Hinduism . From the mid 13th century the authority of Angkor Khmer Empire and decreases in slashing decline.
- - Lana Kingdom (1259 - 1558) - before the rise of the kingdom of Sukhothai , several small fiefdoms lay claim to the area around the Mekong River in Chiang Mai , Northern Thailand . But they were gradually overshadowed by Lana kingdom , which focuses on Chiang Mai and dominates the north for three centuries . The most remarkable king Lana is its founder Mengray (reigned from 1259 to 1317 g ) . As Malden prince Mengray conduct successful military campaigns to expand his empire and bringing warring principalities . He moved the capital of Chiang Seine in Chiang Rai and deftly allied with the rulers , who knows from his youth, from when he studied in Lop Buri . Allies ma include Sukhothai and Payao and Pegu in Burma. Under the leadership of Mengray , Lana becomes strong and prosperous Kingdom of controlling Shan Lao west and the north and northeast. Mengray accept Sinhala Buddhism. After the death of Mengray in 1317 as the heirs to the throne are fighting for supremacy , empire Lana west. In 1328 stability was restored and it is a fact when it is ruled by King Ku (managing from 1355 to 1385 ) . King Tilok (reigned from 1441 to 1487 ) was the last great king of Lana. Eventually the kingdom was conquered by the Burmese who use it as a base for his battle with Ayutthaya .
- - Sukhothai Period (1238-1360) - in 1238 a small army battalion led by Prince Indraditya , attacked the garrison in a relatively minor Khmer town of Sukhothai and conquered it . To Indraditya to be integrated other principalities to completely crush the reign of Khmer and Sukhothai kingdom to establish ( rising happiness ) as Indraditya proclaimed himself its first sovereign. During the 40 - year rule of Indraditya Sukhothai remains relatively small kingdom. Although Sukhothai period is relatively short , its political , cultural and religious heritage forms the basis of a new Thai identity. Merit so highly attributed to the reign of Ramkamhaeng (reigned from 1279 to 1298 g). Skillful diplomacy and wise policy are his main weapons for uniting the Thai people and control of potential enemies ( Examples are union with the northern kingdoms Payao and Lana, and the establishment of diplomatic relations with China, which is constantly looming threat ) . In order to ensure loyalty and solidarity and it encourages marriages between the ruling dynasties.
- - Golden Age - the period of management Ramkamhaeng Thais defined as its golden age . Sagacious monarch with perspicacious views, it contributes enormously to Thai culture, education and art. He is credited Services on Thai alphabet borrowed elements of writing Khmer and installation with the addition of Thai tone marks. Under his patronage artists , craftsmen and architects Sukhothai gradually develop their own styles to create what is today considered the most sophisticated of all Thai artistic styles. During his rule Ramkamhaeng revived Theravada Buddhism , using the rules as a management platform . This enlightener’s approach earned Sukhothai peace and prosperity unknown in any previous kingdom
- - The decline of Sukhothai - After the death of Ramkamhaeng , Sukhothai began irreversibly declined since then kings are unable to maintain political and economic power . Ramakmhaeng son of Li Tai (reigned from 1298 to 1347 years) neglects state affairs and indulges in religious activities and the construction of temples to highlight the personal merit. At the end of his life Sukhitay faces the ever-growing threat of a mediocre Dominion Ayutthaya . Falling under the rule of Ayutthaya , Sukhothai today is nothing more than a tourist attraction , then you give up the town in 1438
- - Ayutthaya period - After the death of Ramakamhaeng , Sukhothai lay claim to independence, but the lack of leadership and power prevent him from fully achieve his goal. Then the power is absorbed by Wu Tong ( ruled from 1350 to 1369 years). Outbreak of cholera in 1351 forced the new leader to move people from the present area of Wu Tong in Ayutthaya - a place almost completely surrounded by rivers. Here he adopted the name Ramatibodi and proclaimed himself king. Immediately set out to expand his empire , proving what he can do with a long and bloody campaign against the West Sukhothai and military actions against smaller dominions Thai south. Theravada Buddhism Ramatibodi proclaimed the official religion , and the next he Ayataki kings perceive Khmer rituals imposed too inviolable separation between the royal family and subjects . After the death of Ramatibodi in 1369 , his son took power Ramasuen (reigned from 1369 - 1370g . , 1388-1395 years), but soon was overthrown by Boromradzha 1st . King Boroma Traylonakat , better known as Traylok (reigned from 1448 to 1488 years), united the states of the kingdom , establishing and administrative military power in Ayutthaya . He introduced the system sadki naa for non-hereditary land ownership and arranges social hierarchy that exists today. Traylok also introduced conscription . Trade was placed under royal control and Ayutthaya prospered , though constantly at war. In 1569 Burmese concur Ayutthaya . In 1767 the Burmese captured Ayutthaya totally and destroyed it.
- - The founding of Bangkok - the destruction of the city would probably destroy Thai nation , if not military skills were Phraya Thaksin (reigned 1767-1782 ) The half- Chinese, half Thai general. Thaksin organized army drove the Burmese from Ayutthaya and regained control over the country. Aware that Burma is still a threat Thaksin abandoned as the capital of Ayutthaya and then moved to a more comfortable place for protection in tone Storms then fishermen’s little village of Chao Phraya River , opposite Bangkok today . Despite military successes, Thaksin is not a skilled ruler. It ignores admistrative obligations is extremely cruel and gradually goes mad . When proclaimed reincarnated Buddha, his ministers troubled him down from office and executed in a manner reserved for royalty - beaten to death in a velvet bag , so that not a drop of his blood touches the ground.
- - Chakri Dynasty ( 1782 - Present ) - Other general Gov Duang Puchayodfa Chulaloke chakra came to power and was crowned as Puchayodfa Ramatibodi Rama 1st (reigned from 1782 to 1809 years). Previous name - Chakras - was adopted by the Chakri dynasty , whose reign continues to this day . Ramatibodi moved the capital across the river at Rattanakosin Island , the territory of present-day Bangkok in 1782 and took the city to strengthen against the intransigent Burmese . His heirs - King Phra Buddhi Loetla in officially known as Rama 2nd (reigned from 1809-1824 ) The son and his leg Nangklao known as Rama 3rd (reigned from 1824 to 1851 on ) - continue its case for the revival of Thai civilization. The elder half-brother of Rama 3 and Prince Mongkut (reigned from 1851 to 1868 years), becomes the next monarch under the name Rama 4th .
- - Modernization of Siam - The son of Mongkut , Chulalongkorn , or frame 5th (reigned 1868-1910 ) The continued work of his father in terms of reform and modernization . Obtained British education Vadzhiravud King , the youngest son of Chulalongkorn , Rama managed as 7th ( 1925-1935 years). He was the last absolute monarch of the Chakri dynasty . In the 50s and 60s of the 20th century in Thailand manage a series of military governments. Prolonged military control of the government reaches a critical point in 1973, when thousands of students gathered at the university " Tamas " in Bangkok and demanding an end to military rule and the adoption of a new constitution. The ruling generals Tanom Kitikachorn and RARP Charusatien summoned troops and unleashed a bloodbath . In a rare intervention in politics, highly respected King Bhumibol , with General SIVAR Crete , who also moderates , condemned the violence. Tanom RARP and fled the country . In 1976 he returned Tanom country under the disguise of a monk. In 1988, after the general elections Chatichay Chunhavan ( 1922-1998 ) had become Prime Minister of Thailand. Chatichay contributes to the further democratization of the country and the unprecedented prosperity and economic , but did little against rampant corruption. In 2005, for the first time since the overthrow of absolute monarchy , the government led by Thaksin Shinawatra , was re-elected for another term . Thaksin was ousted in 2008 after a military coup , fled to Britain. To date, the Prime Minister is his sister - Ingluk Shinawatra .